1. U.S. Commission of Indian Affairs, Annual Report 1852, 2nd Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Executive Document # 1, p. 431 f. .
2. U.S. secretary of War, Annual Report 1851, 32nd Congress, 1st Session, Senate Executive Document # 1, p. 123 .
1. Peace Treaty between the Confederate Indian Tribes and the Prairie Tribes, Camp Napoleon, Wasshita River, Oklahoma Territory, May 26, 1865.
2. War of Rebellion, Official records, Series I, vol. 48, Part II, p. 1102 f., U.S. Commissioners of Indian Affairs, Annual Report 1866, p.55.
1. U.S. Congress House of Representatives, Committee on Military Affairs, Texas Border Troubles, 45th Congress, 2nd Session, House Miscellaneous Document # 64, p. 187 , "Records of Engagements with hostile Indians in Texas 1868 to 1882".
2. West Texas Historical Association, Year Book, IX, October 1933, 104f., Mexican Committee Investigation, p. 424.
1. R.P. Iron, Indian Commissioner for Texas, "Annual Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs," U.S. Department of the Interior 1840-1890, 1838
1. Roberts J. Neighbors, Oklahoma Territory Indian Commissioner at the Oklahoma Indian Agency, "Annual Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs," 1866.
Cabellos Colorados 1724 - 1738 Casablanca 1749 - 1821 Costilietos 1873 Cuelga de Castro 1790 - 1844 El Cojo 1770 - 1820 El Flaco 1824 - 1839 El Chico, A.K.A. Chiquito 1749 - 1821 El Grand Caberon 1752 - 1790 Ramon Castro 1844 - 1850 Yolcna Pocaropa 1770 - 1830 John Castro 1844 - 1880
In 1757 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at San Saba Mission, Texas with an estimated number of 3000 to 2000 tribal members.
In 1821 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at Laredo, Texas with an estimated number of 1500 to 1000 tribal members.
In 1852 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at Fort Manson, Texas with an estimated number of 500 to 300 tribal members.
In July 1852 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at Fort Belknap, Texas on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River with an estimated number of 150 tribal members.
In 1858 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at Fort Clark, Texas and River Frio area with an estimated number of 100 to 75 tribal members.
In 1870 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided at Fort Griffin, Texas with 26 tribal members.
In 1905 the Lipan Apache Band of Texas resided on the Mescalero Indian Reservation in New Mexico with an estimated number of 20 to 40 tribal members.
The Lipan Apache Band was the Apache Band to sign an official treaty of peace with the U. S. Government in 1976 in San Antonio, Texas. The document was transferred to the Mescalero Indian Reservation.
HISTORICAL & U.S. GOVERNMENT REFERENCES
OF THE LIPAN APACHE BAND OF TEXAS
Barker, Eugene, Edited Stephen F. Austin, "The Austin Papers," Annual Report America Historical Association, vol. 2, pp. 507- 508, Washington, DC., 1822
Berlandier, Jean Louis, Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washingt on, D.C., "Jean Louis Berlandier Manuscript," Volume 1, pp. 257-259, and Volume 2, pp. 93-97
Berlandier, Jean Louis, Manuscript Vogage au Mexique 1826-1834, 7 Volumes, Jean Louis Berlandier Manuscript Collection, 7 Volumes, "Voyage au Mexique 1826 - 1834", Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1846, Edited by John C. Ewers, "Indians of Texas 1830", pp. 42, 133 & 134, Washington, D.C., 1969
Bollaert, William, "William Bollaert's Texas," Edited by W. Eugene Hollon, p. 213, Oklahoma, 1956.
Bollaert, William, "Observation on the Indian Tribes in Texas, London Ethnological Society Journal, Volume 2, London, England, 1850 Iron, R. A., "Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," United States Department of Interior 1835 - 1849, Washington, D.C., 1890
McElhannon, Joseph Carl, "Imperial Mexico and Texas 1821-1823," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, Number 2, p. 130, 1949.
Newcombe, W.W., Jr., "The Indians of Texas," pp. 110-112, University of Texas Press, 1956.
Olmsted, Frederick Law, "A Journey Through Texas," Saddle Trip of The Southwestern Frontier, pp. 290-295, New York, 1860.
Reeve, Frank D., "The Apache Indian Tribes of Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, Number 2, p. 201, Texas, 1946.
Sanchez, Jose Maria, "A Trip to Texas in 1828", Translated by Carlos E. Casteneda, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, Number 4, p. 251, Texas, 1926.
The Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C., "Jean Louis Berlandier Manuscript," Volume 1, pp. 257-259, and Volume 2, pages 93-97.
Winfrey, Dorman W., "Texas Indian Papers 1825-1843", 1825-1843 Volume 1, 1843-1844 Volume 2, 1844-1845 Volume 3, 1846-1859 Volume 4, Texas State Library, Austin, Texas, 1959.
a. Live Oak Treaty Between the Republic of Texas Government and Lipan Apache Indians, January 8, 1838, Volume 1 1825-1843, pp. 30-32, Document No. 16, signed by Chief of the Lipan Apache Band Cuelga de Castro at Live Oak Point, Texas
b. Comanche Treaty Between the Lipan Apache Indians, August 17, 1822, Volume 1 1825-1843, pp. 130-131, signed by Chief of the Lipan Apache Band Cuelga de Castro at Laredo, Texas
c. San Saba Treaty Between the Republic of Texas and U.S. Government and Lipan Apache Indians, October 28, 1851, Volume 4 1846-1859, pp. 149-154, Document No. 104, signed by Captain John Castro at San Saba in Bexarounty Texas
d. Tehuacama Treaty Negotiations Between the Republic of Texas Government and Lipan Apache Indians, October 9, 1844, Volume 3 1844-1845, pp. 114-119, Document No. 76, witnessed by Seuge Castro and Ramon Castro at Tehuacama Creek, Texas
e. Tehuacama Treaty Tribal Leadership List for the Republic of Texas Government of the Lipan Apache Band, January 15, 1845, Volume 3 1844-1845, pp. 168-169, Document No. 125, Acknowledged leaders of the Lipan Apache Band Lemas Castro, John Castro, and Raymond Castro at Tehuacama Creek, Texas
f. Tehuacama Treaty Tribal Leadership List for the Republic of Texas Government of the Lipan Apache Band, January 16, 1845, Volume 3 1844-1845, pp. 205-207, Document No. 169, Acknowledged Leader of the Lipan Apache Band Ramon Castro at Tehuacama Creek, Texas
g. Treaty Counsel of Texas Tribes at Tehuacama Creek with the Republic of Texas Government, August 27, 1845 to September 27, 1845, Volume 3 1844-1845, pp. 334-344, Document No. 300, Recognized Leader of the Lipan Apache Band Ramon Castro at Tehuacama Creek, Texas
h. Military Post Campo Ciblo, Texas, Reimbursement request from the Republic of Texas Government from Simon Castro, May 30, 1845, Volume 3 1844-1845, pp. 256-257, Document No. 219, Complaint filed by Simon Castro at Campo Ciblo, San Antonio, Texas
I. Military Post Campo Ciblo, Texas, Reimbursement request from the Republic of Texas Government from Ramon Castro, May 30, 1845, Volume 3 1844-1845, p. 258, Document No. 221, Complaint filed by Ramon Castro at Campo Ciblo, San Antonio, Texas
Allen, Henry Easton, "The Destruction of the San Saba Mission, and the Parrilla Expedition," Master's thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1923, pp. 140.
Discusses Spanish efforts to protect Lipan Apache converts from the attacks of Comanches, Tonkawas, and Wichitas. Also includes a discussion of the 1759 expedition by Diego Ortiz Parrilla against Indian camps on the Red River which resulted in a major Spanish defeat.
Allen, Henry Easton,"The Parrilla Expedition to the Red River in 1759", Southwestern Historical Quarterly, No. 43, July 1939, p. 53-71.
Campaign against Tonakawas and Taovayas which resulted in failure and seriously weaken Spain's alliance with Lipan Apaches and other missions in Central Texas. Traces the innate problems of relying on frontier soldiers and militia of low morale and poor training.
Downs, Fane, "The Administration of Antonio Martinez, Last Spanish Governor of Texas 1817-1822", Masters' thesis, Texas Technology University, 1963, pp. 63.
Includes an overview chapter on problems with Comanches, Tonkawas, Towakonis, and Lipan Apaches.
Dunagan, Conrad, "Spanish-Mission Trails and Traces in the Pecos Plains of Texas," Permian Historical Annual, No. 1, 1961, p. 43-65.
Includes considerable information on Spanish-Mexican relations with the Jumano, Comanche, and Lipan Apache between Midland County and the Pecos River.
Dunn, William Edward, "The Apache Mission on the San Saba River - Its Founding and failure," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, No. 17, April 1914, p. 379-414.
Explains how Comanche raiders destroyed the San Saba Mission and its Lipan Apache residents.
Crimmins, Martin L., "An Indian Raid Near Laredo," Frontier Times, No. 10, August 1933, p. 489-494.
Kickapoo and Lipan Apache raid upon Duval and Nueces counties during April 1878 results in the dead of eighteen civilians and pursuit by army troops.
Gilmore, Kathleen K., "A Documentary and Archeological Investigation of Presidio San Luis de Las Amarillas and Mission Santa Cruz de San Saba," Texas State Report No. 9, Austin, Texas, State Building Commission, Archeological Program, 1967, pp. 72.
The Menard County mission, intended primarily for Lipan Apache converts, was destroyed by Comanches in March 1758.
Huson, Hobart, "Refugio County - A Comprehensive History of Refugio County from Aboriginal Times to 1953", Vol. 1, Woodsboro, Texas, Rooke Foundation, 1953, p. 596.
Brief and superficial information on Karankawas, Tonkawas, Comanches, and Lipan Apaches.
Hester, Thomas R., "Aboriginal Watercraft on the Lower Rio Grande of Texas," Masterkey, No. 46, July-September 1972, p. 108-110.
Postuates the use of canoes on the lower Rio Grande by Coahuiltecan and Lipan Apache groups.
Hispanic American Historical Review, "The Seminole in Mexico 1850-1861," Hispanic American Historical review, No. 31, February 1951, p. 1-36.
Assess Mexican employment of Seminoles to pursue and fight marauding groups of Comanches, Kiowas, and Lipan Apaches in north eastern Mexico.
Hunter, Martin J., "Indian Raid on Duval and Nueces Counties," Frontier Times, No. 14, March 1937, p. 254-258.
Photostat copy of military reports explains the Kickapoo, Seminole, and Lipan Apache attack near Laredo, Texas on April 14, 1878.
Hunter, Martin J., "The Battle of Dove Creek," Frontier Times, No. 1, July 1924, p. 17-20.
Photostat copy of military reports explains the Kickapoo, Seminole, and Lipan Apache attack near Laredo, Texas on April 14, 1878.
Mackenzie, Ronald, "A Raid into Old Mexico with General Mackenzie," Winners of the West, No. 2, September 1925, p. 8.
Account of Ronald Mackenzie's 1873 raid into Mexico against Kickapoo and Lipan Apache camps, as recorded by one of his officers who participated.
Martin, George C., comp., "The Indian Tribes of the Mission Nuestra Senora del Refugio," San Antonio, Wendell Potter Press, 1936, pp. 82, rpt., Corpus Christi, Texas, Bootstraps Press, 1972.
Drawing upon archeological evidence and church records, Martin disputes some of Albert Gatschet conclusions about the Karankawa. He also offers brief profiles on each small group of Coco, Copane, Coapite, Cujan, Pamoque, Piguique, Pajalache, Malaguite, Araname, and Lipan who were affiliated with the Texas coastal missions.
Mitchell, Jimmy L., "Notes on Metal Projectile Points form Southern Texas," Journal of South Texas, No. 1, 1974, p. 47-51.
Examples of four projectile points found in Zavala and Dimmitt counties, thought to be of Lipan Apache or Comanche origin.
Moorhead, Max L., "The Presidio - Bastion of the Spanish Borderlands," Norman Press, University of Oklahoma Press, 1975, pp. 288.
Despite Moorhead's focus on the mission-presidio system in areas west and northwest of Texas, he has provided a solid study of this seminal institution which is relevant to the Texas colonial experience. Military operations against Comanches and Lipan Apache receive some discussion, but the other Texas tribes are omitted. The book is actually more valuable for its non-martial themes such as the presidio's ability to lure settlers into frontier communities and to establish viable local economies.
Nelson, Al B., "Juan de Ugalde and Picux-Ande Ins-Tinsle 1787-1788", Southwestern Historical Quarterly, No. 43, April 1940, p. 438-464.
Spanish campaigns against Mescalero ad Lipan Apaches in the Trans-Pecos are of West Texas. Lipan Chief Picax-Ande offers alliance with Spaniards to help defeat Comanches.
Newcomb, William W. Jr., "A Lipan Apache Mission, San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz 1762-1771", Texas Memorial Museum, Bulletin No. 14, Austin, Texas, University of Texas, 1969, pp. 191.
In the first half of this scholarly study, Tunnell provides an archeological investigation of the mission site, and this is followed by Newcomb's ethnohistorical investigation which places all of the Texas mended source should serve as a model for other mission excavations in the Southwest.
Padilla, Juan Antonio, "Texas in 1820's - Report of the Barbarous Indians of the Province of Texas, by Juan Antonio Padilla December 27, 1819", Translated by Mattle Austin Hatcher, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, No. 23, July 1919, p. 47-68.
Lengthy descriptions of various Caddo, Karankawa, and Atakapa tribes, their village locations, and their friendships for Spaniards. Also, a discussion of the hostile tribes; Comanches, Lipan Apaches, Tonkawas, Tawakonis, and Taovayas.
Pate, J"Nell, "United States-Mexican Border Conflicts 1870-1880", West Texas Historical Association Year Book, No. 38, 1962, p. 175-194.
Summarizes Kickapoo and Apache attacks along the southern part of the Rio Grande River.
Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, "The Mexicans and Indian Raid of 1878", Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, No. 5, January 1902, p. 212-251.
Reprint of a pamphlet issued at Corpus Christi in 1878 listing firsthand descriptions of bandit and Indian raids from Mexico into South Texas 2E Pamphlet appeals to Congress and the President for military protection. The alleged raiders include Kickapoos, Seminoles, and Lipan Apaches.
Richards, Hons Coleman, "The Establishment of the Candelaria and San Lorenzo Missions on the Upper Nueces," Master's thesis, University of Texas 1936, pp. 75.
Dramatizes problems associated with these Lipan Apache missions from 1749 to 1761 and reasons for their abandonment. many of the workers associated with theses missions were highly acculturative Coahuiltecans 2E
Rippy, Ford J., "Border Troubles Along the Rio Grande 1848-1860, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, No. 23, October 1919, p. 91-111.
Problems with Seminole, Kickapoo and Lipan Apache attacks from their sanctuaries in Mexico, especially from Piedras Negras area. Citizens charged that Mexico deliberately protected and encouraged these raiders 2E
Russell, Rubye S., "Folklore of South Texas and Mexico," Sul Ross State University, 1952, Mater's thesis, pp. 117.
Includes brief folklore tale of a Lipan Apache attack upon Laredo in 1790 2E Also, contains several white-told tales about the Karankawa.
Simpson, Lasley Byrd, "The San Saba Papers - A Documentary Account of the Founding and destruction of San Saba Mission," Translated by Paul D. Nathan, San Francisco, John Howell Books, 1959, pp. 157.
Excellent source of information on the workings of a mid 18th-Century mission-presidio for Lipan Apaches and the continuous troubles with Comanche raiders who finally destroyed the San Saba Mission in 1758.
U.S. Congress, House, "Kickapoo and Other Roaming Bands of Indian in Mexico," House Executive Document 90, 43rd Congress, 1st Session, pp.2, [ser. set 1607].
Commissioner of Indian Affairs N. G. Taylor recommends appropriations of $50,000 to move Kickapoos out of Mexico and back to Indian territory to stop their raids on South Texas. Several letters from military officers and Texans validate intensity of these raids.
U.S. Congress, House, "Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas," House Executive Document 257, 43rd Congress, 1st Session, 1874, pp. 32. , [ser. set 1615].
Excellent compendium of reports, especially on Kickapoo, Seminole, Mescalero, and Lipan attacks throughout South Texas. Also includes considerable information on Comanche and Kiowa attacks across West Texas, as well as their significant trade with Comancheros from New Mexico.
U.S. Congress, House, "Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas," House Executive Document 39, 42nd Congress, 3rd Session, 1872, pp. 63, [ser. set1 565].
A lengthy list of specific depredations and monetary amounts associated with lost of property in each. These cover 1859-1871 and are limited to South Texas, especially Kickapoo, Seminole and Lipan Apache attacks.
U.S. Congress, House, "Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas," Resolution of the Texas Legislature, Texas Senate Document 37, 42nd Congress, 1st Session, 1871, pp. 2, [ser. set 1467].
Kickapoo and Lipan attacks on South Texas. Texans lash out an suggestions in the U.S. Congress that reports of these raids have been exaggerated.
U.S. Congress, House, "Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas," Resolution of the Legislature of Texas asking that a measure be taken to prevent the Republic of Mexico from harboring hostile bands of Indians depredating the southwestern frontier of that state, Texas Senate Misc. Document 150, 41st Congress, 2nd Session, 1870, pp. 2, [ser. set 1408].
Request that diplomatic pressures be placed on Mexico to halt the Kickapoo and Lipan Apache attacks on South and West Texas.
U.S. Congress, House, "Depredations on the Frontiers of Texas," Relations of the United States with Mexico, House Report 701, 45th Congress, 2nd Session, 1874, p. 63
Daniel Castro Romero Jr.